Adoniram Judson Burma's
(Printable Version 400K)
by Galen B. Royer*
Born in Malden, Massachusetts, August 9, 1788. JUDSON MEMORIAL IN RANGOON UNIVERSITY
Died on the Indian Ocean, April 12, 1850. BooK "To the Golden Shore" US$13
ယုဒသန္ (ခရစ္ ၁၇၈၈ -၁၈၅ဝ)။
ဆရာၾကီးယုဒသန္သည္ ဘိုးေတာ္ဘုရားလက္ထက္တြင္ အေမရိကန္ျပည္ေထာင္စုမွေရာက္လာေသာ ခရစ္ယန္ သာသနာျပဳ ပုဂိၢဳလ္ျဖစ္သည္။ ယုဒသန္ ဟူေသာအမည္မွာ ျမန္မာတုိ႔က ဂ်ပ္ဆင္ ဆိုေသာစကားလံုးကို အသံလွယ္၍ ေခၚဆိုေသာ အသံထြက္ျဖစ္ျပီး အမည္ရင္းမွာ အဒိုနီရမ္ဂ်ပ္ဆင္ ျဖစ္ေလသည္။ ယုဒသန္သည္ ျမန္မာနိဳင္ငံတြင္ အေမရိကန္ ႏွစ္ျခင္းအသင္းေတာ္ကို စတင္တည္ေထာင္သူျဖစ္သည္။ ယုဒသန္သည္ ျမန္မာနိဳင္င့ ခရစ္ယန္ သာသနာေရး ဖက္၌သာမက စာေပဖက္၌ေသာ္၄င္း၊ နိဳင္ငံေရးဖက္၌ေသာ္၄င္း ထင္ရွားေက်ာ္ၾကားေသာပုဂၢိဳလ္ျဖစ္ေလသည္။
ယုဒသန္သည္ ၁၇၈၈ ခုႏွစ္ ၾသဂုတ္လ ၉ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ အေမရိကန္ျပည္ေထာင္စု၊ မက္ဆာခ်ဴးဆက္ျပည္နယ္ ေမာ္လဒင္ျမိဳ႔တြင္ ေမြးဖြားခဲ့သည္။ ဗေရာင္းသကၠသိုလ္တြင္ ပညာသင္ၾကားခဲ့၏။ ၁၈၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ေဖေဖၚဝါရီ ၅ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ အန္ေဟဇယ္တိုင္ ႏွင့္ ထိမ္းျမားလက္ထပ္ခဲ့ေလသည္။ ေနာက္တေန႔တြင္ ယုဒသန္သည္ အျခား ေဖၚေလးဦးတို႔ႏွင့္အတူ အေရွ႔အာရွနိဳင္ငံမ်ားသုိ႔ သာသနာျပဳရန္ ေစလြတ္ျခင္းခံရ၏။ ယုဒသန္ ဇနီးေမာင္ႏွံတို႔သည္ ေဖေဖၚဝါရီ ၁၉ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ေဆလမ္ျမိဳ႔ ဆိပ္ကမ္းမွ သေဘၤာျဖင့္ ထြက္ခြာခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ဇြန္လတြင္ အိႏိၷယနိဳင္ငံ ကာလကတၱားျမိဳ႔သို႔ ဆိုက္ေရာက္ေလသည္။
ထိုအခ်ိန္က ျဗိတိလွ် အစိုးရႏွင့္ အေမရိကန္ အစိုရတို႔သည္ အခ်င္းခ်င္းမသင့္မတင့္ ျဖစ္လွ်က္ရွိရကား အိႏၷိယနိဳင္ငံတြင္ေရာက္ရွိေနသည့္ ျဗိတိလွ်တို၏ အေရွ႔အိႏၷိယ ကုမၼဏီသည္ အေမရိကန္သာသနာျပဳပုဂၢိဳလ္မ်ားကို ထိုတိုင္းျပည္တြင္ ေနထိုင္ရန္မလိုလားေခ်။ ထို႔ေၾကာင့္ အိႏၷိယနိဳင္ငံသရွိ ဘုရင္ခံခ်ဳပ္က ယုဒသန္ႏွင့္ဇနီးတို႔ကို မိမိတုိ႔စီးနင္းလိုက္ပါလာခဲ့ေသာ သေဘၤာျဖင့္ အေမရိကန္ျပည္သို႔ျပန္ရန္ အမိန္႔ေပးေလသည္။ ထိုအခါ ယုဒသန္သည္ ျပင္သစ္ပိုင္ ေမာရစ္ရွပ္ကြ်န္းသို႔ ထြက္ခြာခဲ့ရသည္။ အိႏၷိယနိဳင္ငံတြင္ရွိေနစဥ္ ယုဒသန္ႏွင့္သူ၏ဇနီးတို႔သည္ ႏွစ္ျခင္း ခရစ္ယန္အသင္းသို႔ ကူးေျပာင္းခဲ့ၾကသည္။
ယုဒသန္သည္ အေရွ႔ အာရွနိဳင္ငံမ်ား၌ သာသနာျပဳရန္ဟူေသာ မူလရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ကို စြန္႔လႊတ္ရမည္ကဲ့သို႔အေျခအေနတြင္ေရာက္ရွိေနခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း ၁၈၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ ဇြန္လဆန္းတြင္ အေရွဖက္သို႔ ၾကံဳရာသေဘၤာႏွင့္ မဒရပ္ျမိဳ႔သို႔ထြက္ခြာခဲ့ၾကျပန္သည္။ တဖန္ မဒရပ္ျမိဳ႔မွ တဆင့္ ေဂ်ာဂ်ီးယားနားအမည္ရွိ သေဘၤာျဖင့္ျမန္မာနိဳင္ငံသို႔လိုက္ပါလာခဲၾကရာ ဇူလိုင္လ ၁၃ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ႔သိုဆိုက္ေရာက္ေလသည္။
ထိုအခါက ရန္ကုန္သည္ ယခုကာလ ရန္ကုန္ႏွင့္ လံုးဝမတူေခ်။ ဆူးေလေစတီေတာ္ကို အေရွ႔ဖက္၊ အေနာက္ဖက္ႏွင့္ ေတာင္ဖက္တို႔မွ အင္းၾကီးတခုကာလွ်က္ရွိသည္။ ျမိဳ႔ကို အင္းၾကီးႏွင့္ ေခ်ာင္းေျမာင္း ထံုးအိုင္တို႔ ဝန္းရန္လ်က္ရွိသျဖင့္ ကြ်န္းၾကီးကဲ့သို႔ ျဖစ္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ ျမိဳ႔ေျမာက္မ်က္ႏွာ ဝန္ၾကီးတံခါးမွ ထြက္၍ ေခ်ာင္းကိုကူးျပီးလ်င္ဝန္ၾကီး လမ္းအတိုင္း ဆက္သြားပါလူ မိုင္ဝက္ေလာက္ ခရီးတြင္ ႏွစ္ျခင္းသာသနာျပဳအိမ္ၾကီးသို႔ေရာက္ေလသည္။ ယခုဘားလမ္း၏ ေျမာက္စြန္းအနီးတြင္ ျဖစ္သည္ဟု သမိုင္းဆရာ မ်ားက ဆိုသည္။ ထိုအိမ္ရွင္မွာ အိႏိၷယနိဳင္ငံ ဆာရမ္ပူျမိဳ႔ရွိ အဂၤလိပ္ ႏွစ္ျခင္း ခရစ္ယန္သာသနာျပဳ ဝီလ်ံကာရီ၏ သား ဖဲလစ္ကာရီ ျဖစ္သည္။ ထိုသာသနာျပဳအိမ္၌ ယုဒသန္တို႔ ေနထိုင္ၾကသည္။
ေဟာရန္ ေျပာရန္ သာသနာျပဳရန္ ေရာက္လာၾကသည္ျဖစ္ေသာ္လည္း ယုဒသန္တို႔သည္ ျမန္မာစကားကို တလံုးတပါဒမွ် မတတ္ၾက၊ ထို႔ေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာစကားကို ဦးစြာၾကိဳးစားသင္ယူရသည္။ သိုျဖင့္ သံုးႏွစ္ သံုးမိုး ရွိလာေသာအခါ ယုဒသန္သည္ ျမန္မာသဒၾၶြါက်မ္းတေစာင္ကို ေရးသားျပဳစုျပီး ေလ၏။ ျမန္မာတို႔ အၾကားတြင္ သာသနာျပဳဖို႔ရန္ ျမန္မာတို႔၏ အယူဝါဒ အေလ့အလာ တို႔ကိုလည္း နားလည္ရေပဦးမည္။ ထို႔ေၾကာင့္ ယုဒသန္သည္ ေလာကုတၱရာ စာေပမ်ားကို ေလ့လာဆည္းပူးရာ၊ ျမန္မာစကား ကဲ့သိုျဖစ္ေနေသာ ပါဠိ၊ သကၠတ စကားလံုးေပါင္း ေလးေထာင္ေလာက္ကို စုေဆာင္းမိေလသည္။ ထိုစကားလံုး မ်ားကို အကၡရာဝလိစဥ္၍ ျမန္မာအနက္ ေပးကာ ပါဠိ - ျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္ကို စတင္ျပဳစုေလသည္။ ထိုအဘိဓာန္တြင္ ပါေသာ ျမန္မာ စကားလံုး မ်ားကို တဖန္ အကၡရာ ဝလိစဥ္ကာ အဂၤလိပ္ အနက္ေပး၍ ပဌမျမန္မာ-အဂၤလိပ္ အဘိဓာန္ငယ္ကို ဆက္လက္ ျပဳစုျပန္သည္။
၁၈၁၆ ခုနွစ္တြင္ ဘဂၤလားျပည္နယ္ ဆရမ္ပူ သာသနာျပဳေကာလိပ္ေက်ာင္းက ပံုႏွိပ္စက္တလံုးႏွင့္ ျမန္မာခဲစာလံုးမ်ားကို လက္ေဆာင္ပို႔လိုက္သည္။ ပံုႏွိပ္စက္ႏွင့္အတူ ဆရာေဟာက္ ဆိုသူ ပံုႏွိပ္ပညာတတ္ အေမရိကန္သာသနာျပဳတဦးလည္း ေရာက္လာသည္။ ၁၈၁၇ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ယုဒသန္သည္ ရွင္မႆဲ ခရစ္ဝင္က်မ္းကို ျမန္မာဘာသာျပန္ဆိုျပီးစီးသည္။ ထုိအခါ ယုဒသန္သည္ တရား ေဟာနိဳင္ေလာက္ေအာင္ ျမန္မာစကားတတ္ျပီဟု အယူရွိေလသည္။ ထို႔ေၾကာင့္သူသည္ ျမန္မာတို႔ တရားနာေလ့ရွိေသာ စရပ္မ်ားသို႔သြားကာ ဓမၼကထိကမ်ား ေဟာသည္ကို ျမန္မာမ်ားနွင့္အတူ နာယူ၍ အတုယူနည္းမွည္းေလေတာ့သည္။ ထို႔ေနာက္ သာသနာျပဳအိမ္ၾကီးႏွင့္ မလွမ္းမကမ္း လူသြားလူလာမ်ားေသာခရီးတြင္ စရပ္တေဆာင္ ေဆာက္လုပ္သည္။ စရပ္မ်က္ႏွာစာခန္းကို ဝါး၊ ဓနိတို႔ျဖင့္ ေဆာက္လုပ္၍ အကာအရံမရွိ ဟင္လင္းထားသည္။ ထိုအေဆာင္တြင္ ယုဒသန္ထိုင္၍ ခရီးသြားမ်ားကို တရားနာလာရန္ ဖိတ္ေခၚေလ့ရွိသည္။ ကေလးသူငယ္ မ်ားကိုလည္း သစ္သား သင္ပုန္းၾကီးမ်ားခင္း၍ စာသင္ေပးေလ့ရွိသည္။ ထိုစရပ္ၾကီးတြင္ ယုဒသန္တို႔သည္ တရားစေဟာသည္။ က်မ္းစာမ်ားကိုလည္း ဆက္လက္ေရးသား ျပန္ဆိုကာ ပံုႏွိပ္ထုတ္ေဝေလသည္။
သို႔ျဖင့္ ဘၾကီးေတာ္ဘုရား လက္ထက္သို႔ ေရာက္လာေသာအခါ ဘုရင္မင္းျမက္ထံမွ တရားေဟာေျပာခြင့္ အမိန္႔ေတာ္ကို ခံယူရန္လိုသျဖင့္ အျခား သာသနာျပဳတဦးျဖစ္သူ ဆရာကိုးလမင္းႏွင့္ အတူ ေနျပည္ေတာ္သို႔ ၁၈၁၉ ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇင္ဘာလတြင္ ဆန္တက္ သြားၾကေလသည္။ လမ္းခရီးတြင္ တလေက်ာ္ၾကာျပီးေနာက္ အမရပူရျမိဳ႔ေတာ္၌ ဘၾကီးေတာ္ မင္းတရားၾကီးထံ အခစားဝင္ေရာက္ခြင့္ရ၍ ယုဒသန္က သာသနာျပဳခြင့္ရရန္ ေလ်ာက္တင္ေလသည္။ သို႔ရာတြင္ မင္းတရားၾကီးက ႏွစ္သက္ေတာ ္မမူသျဖင့္ အခြင့္မရဘဲ ရန္ကုန္သို႔ စုန္ဆင္းခဲ့ရသည္။
ထုိအေတာ အတြင္း ယုဒသန္၏ ဇနီးမွာ က်န္းမာေရးခ်ိဳ႔ယြင္း လ်က္ရွိသျဖင့္ ၁၈၂၁ ခုနွစ္တြင္ အေမရိကန္ နိဳင္ငံသို ျပန္ေလသည္။ ထို႔ေနာက္ မ်က္စိ ေရာဂါႏွင္ နားေရာဂါ တို႔၌အထူး ကြ်မ္းက်င္ေသာ သာသနာျပဳ ဆရာဝန္ ပရိုက္စ္ ဆိုသူသည္ ၁၈၂၁ ခုုႏွစ္ ဒီဇင္ဘာလ ၂၈ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ႔သို႔ ေရာက္လာသည္။ ၁၈၂၂ ခုႏွစ္ ၾသဂုတ္လ၂၈ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ေဒါက္တာပရိုက္စ္သည္ အင္းဝျမိဳ႔ေတာ္ရွိ ဘၾကီးေတာ္မင္းတရားၾကီးထံ အခစားဝင္ေရာက္ရန္ ဆန္တက္ရာတြင္ ယုဒသန္လည္း စကားျပန္အျဖစ္ ဒုတိယအၾကိမ္ လိုက္ပါသြား ျပန္ေလသည္။ ထိုအခ်ိန္တြင္ ဘၾကီးေတာ္ မင္းတရားၾကီးသည္ အင္းဝျမိဳ႔ေတာ္သို႔ ေျပာင္းေရႊ႔ စံေနေတာ္မူျပီ ျဖစ္၏။ တခါေသာ္ ယုဒသန္သည္ ဘၾကီးေတာ္ မင္းတရားေရွ႔တြင္ တရားေဟာ ေျပာျပရေလသည္။ မင္းတရားၾကီးက ယုဒသန္အား ေနျပည္ေတာ္၌ ေနထိုင္ရန္ ေျမတကြက္ ေပးသနားေတာ္ မူသည္။ ေဒါက္တာပရိုက္စ္ ကိုမူ စစ္ကိုင္းဖက္၌ ေနအိမ္ေဆာက္ ခြင္ေပးေလသည္။
ထိုေနာက္ ယုဒသန္ သည္ ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ႔ သိုစုန္ဆင္းခဲ့သည္။ ၁၈၂၃ ခုႏွစ္ဒီဇင္ဘာလ ၅ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ အန္း ေဟဇယ္တိုင္သည္ အေမရိကန္ႏိုင္ငံမွ ျပန္ေရာက္လာသည္။ ၁၈၂၄ ခုႏွစ္ ဇႏၡဝါရီလ ၂၃ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ယုဒသန္ ဇနီးေမာင္ႏံွ ႏွစ္ဦးတုိ႔သည္ အင္းဝေနျပည္ေတာ္ သို႔ ေရာက္ရွိလာျပီးလ်င္ အိမ္တေဆာင္ ေဆာက္လုပ္ ေနထိုင္ၾကေလသည္။
ယုဒသန္သည္ ျမန္မာမွဴးမတ္ ေဆြေတာ္ မ်ိဳးေတာ္တို႔ႏွင့္ သင့္ျမက္ေအာင္ ေပါင္းသင္း၍ သူ၏ဇနီးက ေက်ာင္း တေက်ာင္းဖြင့္ကာ အပ္ခ်ဳပ္ အတတ္နွင့္ စာေရး စာဖတ္ တို႔ကိုသင္ၾကား ေပးသည္။ ယုဒသန္သည္ စၾတာ မင္းကေလးေခၚ ေညာင္ရမ္းမင္းသားထံ မျပတ္ခစားသည္။ ခဲေပါင္ျမိဳ႔စား ဝန္ၾကီး ဦးေရႊလူ၊ ျမဝတီမင္းၾကီးဦးစ ႏွင့္ မကၡရာ မင္းသားၾကီးတို႔ ထံတြင္လည္းဝင္ထြက္ ေလသည္။
ထိုအေတာအတြင္း ျမန္မာ အစိုးရႏွင့္ အဂၤလိပ္အစိုးရတို႔သည္ ရွင္မျဖဴကြ်န္း အေရးေၾကာင့္ စစ္ျဖစ္ၾကရာ ၁၈၂၄ ခုႏွစ္ေမလတြင္ အဂၤလိပ္တို႔က ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ႔ကို သိမ္းယူေလသည္။ ထိုအခ်ိန္တြင္ ေနျပည္ေတာ္၌ နိဳင္ငံျခားသားတို႔အား ထိမ္းသိမ္း ေစာင့္ၾကပ္ထားရန္လိုအပ္သည့္အတိုင္း ယုဒသန္ႏွင့္ ေဒါက္တာပရိုက္စ္တို႔ကို ဖမ္းဆီး၍ လက္မရြံ ေထာင္သို႔ပို႔ထားေလသည္။ အျခားေသာအဂၤလိပ္လူမ်ိဳးမ်ားလည္း ထိုနည္းအတူ အဖမ္းခံရသည္။ ၁၈၂၅ ခုႏွစ္ ဇႏၡဝါရီလ ၂၆ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ယုဒသန္ဇနီး၌ သမီးဖြားျမင္၍ မာရီယာဟု အမည္မည့္ေခၚသည္။
ယုဒသန္တို႔လူစုကို ေထာင္ထဲ၌ ၁ဝ လ အက်ဥ္းခ်ထားျပီးေနာက္ ေအာင္ပင္လယ္ေထာင္သို႔ တဖန္ ေျပာင္းေရြ႔ခ်ဳပ္ေႏွာင ္ ထားေလသည္။ ဇနီးလည္း မိမိ၏ ခင္ပြန္းသြားရာ အရပ္သို႔လိုက္ေလသည္။ ထိုႏွစ္နိုဝင္ဘာလတြင္ ယုဒသန္အား ေထာင္မွလႊတ္ရန္ အမိန္႔ေရာက္လာသည္။ မလြန္ျမိဳ႔အနီး ေညာင္ပင္ဆိပ္စခန္းတြင္ အဂၤလိပ္ႏွင့္ ျမန္မာတို႔ စစ္ေျပျငိမ္းေရးအတြက္ ႏွစ္ဦး ႏွစ္ဘက္ ေစ့စပ္ေဆြးေႏြးရာ၌ ယုဒသန္ကို စကားျပန္အျဖစ္ ေစလြတ္ရန္အတြက္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ဒီဇင္ဘာ ၁၇ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ အင္းဝသို႔ျပန္ေရာက္လာသည္။
ထုိ႔ေနာက္ ခဲေပါင္ျမိဳ႔စား ဝန္ၾကီးဦးေရႊလူ၏ ကူညီမွူျဖင့္ ယုဒသန္သည္ ၁၈၂၅ ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇင္ဘာ ၃၁ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ေထာင္မွလြတ္သည္။ ထိုအခ်ိန္တြင္ ယုဒသန္၏ ဇနီးသည္ အသည္းအသန္ဖ်ားနာလ်က္ရွိသည္။ ၁၈၂၆ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ရႏၾၶြပိုစာခ်ဳပ္ ခ်ဳပ္ဆိုေသာအခါ၊ ယုဒသန္သည္ စကားျပန္အျဖစ္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ကာ အဂၤလိပ္မွ ျမန္မာသို႔၊ ျမန္မာမွ အဂၤလိပ္သို႔ ေျပာသမွ် စကား၊ ေၚသမွ် စာတို႔ကို ဘာသာျပန္ဆိုရေလသည္။ စစ္ေျပျငိမ္းသြားေသာအခါတြင္ကား ယုဒသန္သည္ ေအာက္ျပည္သို႔စုန္၍ အဂၤလိိပ္ပိုင္နက္ျဖစ္ေသာ က်ိုက္ၡမီျမိဳ႔တြင္ ေနထိုင္ၾကသည္။
ယုဒသန္၏ ဇနီး အန္း ေဟဇယ္တိုင္သည္ ၁၈၂၆ ခုႏွစ္ ေအာက္တိုဘာလ ၂၄ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ကြယ္လြန္ေလသည္။ ထုိအခ်ိန္တြင္ ယုဒသန္သည္ ျဗိတိလွ် အစိုရကိုယ္စလွယ္ ဂ်ြန္ ကေရာဖက္ႏွင့္အတူ အင္းဝျမိဳ႔ေတာ္သို႔ အဂၤလိပ္အစိုးရ ကိစၥျဖင့္ ေရာက္ရွိေနခိုက္ျဖစ္သည္။ ၁၈၂၇ ခုႏွစ္ ဧျပီလ ၂၄ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ယုဒသန္၏ သမီး မာရီယာသည္လည္း ကြယ္လြန္ေလသည္။
ယုဒသန္ျပန္ဆိုေသာ ဓမၼသစ္က်မ္းကို ၁၈၃၂ ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇင္ဘာ ၁၅ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ေမာ္လျမိဳင္ျမိဳ႔၊ သာသနာပိုင္ပံုႏုိပ္တုိက္၌ ပထမဦးဆံုးအၾကိမ္ ရိုက္ႏွိပ္ခဲ့သည္။ ဓမၼေဟာင္းက်မ္းကိုလည္း ဆက္လက္ျပန္ဆိုခဲ့ရာ ၁၈၃၅ ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇင္ဘာ ၂၉ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ပံုႏိုပ္ျပီးစီးေလသည္။ ဦးစြာ ယုဒသန္၏ အၾကံမွာ အဂၤလိပ္-ျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္နွင့္ ျမန္မာ-အဂၤလိပ္ အဘိဓာန္ ႏွစ္ေစာင္ကို တအုပ္တည္း ပံုႏွိပ္ထုတ္လုပ္ရန္ျဖစ္သည္။ သို႔ေသာ္လည္ ၁၈၂ဝ ခုႏွစ္ကျပဳစုခဲ့ေသာ အဘိဓာန္မွာ မျပည့္စံုသျဖင့္ ၁၈၄၂ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ အဘိဓာန္ကို ႏွစ္ေစာင္ခြဲ၍ စတင္ျပဳစုေလသည္။ အဂၤလိပ္အဘိဓာန္ကို ၁၈၄၉ ခုႏွစ္ ဇႏၡဝါရီလ ၂၄ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ အျပီးသတ္သည္။ ထို႔ေနာက္ အဘိဓာန္ကို ဆက္လက္ျပဳစုေနခိုက္ မက်န္းမမာျဖစ္လာသည္။ ထို႔ေၾကာင့္ ၁၈၅ဝ ခုႏွစ္ ဧျပီလ ဂ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ယုဒသန္သည္ ေမာ္လျမိဳင္ျမိဳ႔မွ သေဘၤာျဖင့္ ပင္လယ္ခရီး ထြက္သြားရာ ဧျပီလ ၁၂ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ကြယ္လြန္ေလသည္။ ယုဒသန္၏ အေလာင္းကို ပင္လယ္ျပင္တြင္ေရျမွတ္သျဂိဳလ္လိုက္ၾကသည္။
ယုဒသန္၏ လက္ငုတ္ျဖစ္ေသာ ျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္ကို သာသနာျပဳဆရာ အီးေအ၊ စတီဖင္က ဆက္လက္လုပ္ကိုင္ခဲ့ရာ ၁၈၅၂ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ေမာ္လျမိဳင္ျမိဳ႔ အေမရိကန္ သာသနာပံုႏိုပ္တိုက္၌ ပထမအၾကိမ္ စက္တင္ ပံုႏိုပ္နိဳင္ခဲ့သည္။ ယုဒသန္သည္ အဘိဓာန္နွင့္ ခရစ္ယန္က်မ္းမ်ားအျပင္ ေရႊခ်န္ခြင္ စာအုပ္ကို ၄င္း၊ ျမန္မာအမ်ိဳးသမီး ဝတ္ဆင္ပံု စာတမ္းကို ၄င္း၊ ပိ႗ကတ္အႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ က်မ္းကို၄င္း ျမန္မာဘာသာျဖင့္ ေရးခဲ့ေလသည္။
ယုဒသန္သည္ ပထမ ဇနီး အန္း ေဟဇယ္တိုင္ကြယ္လြန္ျပီးေနာက္ ၁၈၃၄ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ မစၥစ္ ေဗာ့ဒမန္ဆိုသူ မုဆိုးမတဦးႏွင့္ ဒုတိယ အိမ္ေထာင္ျပဳသည္။ တဖန္ ဒုတိယ ဇနီးကြယ္လြန္ျပန္၍ ၁၈၄၆ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ မစၥအမၼလီခ်ဴးဗက္ ဆိုသူႏွင့္ တတိယ အိမ္ေထာင္ျပဳေလသည္။ က်န္ရစ္ခဲ့ေသာသားသမီးမ်ားအနက္ သားျဖစ္သူ အက္ဒြပ္ ဂ်ပ္ဆင္သည္ ယုဒသန္၏ အထုပၸတိကို ေရးခဲ့ေလသည္။ ယခင္က ရန္ကုန္တကၠသိုလ္တြင္ အပါအဝင္ျဖစ္ေသာ ဂ်ပ္ဆင္ေကာလိပ္မွာ ယုဒသန္အထိမ္းအမွတ္ေက်ာင္းပင္ျဖစ္သည္။
ျမန္မာစြယ္စံုက်မ္း အတြဲ ၁ဝ၊ (၁၉၆၆) စာမ်က္နွာ
Burmese Encyclopedia Vol 10, P-433 (Publsihed in 1966)
ဆရာယုဒသန္ ၃၅နွစ္ၾကာ ျမန္မာျပည္ခရီးစဥ္တြင္ ျမန္မာ၊ကရင္ ၇၀၀၀ ေက်ာ္ ႏွစ္ျခင္းခံျပီး ခရစ္ေတာ္ယံုၾကည္ျခင္းႏွင့္ ထာ၀ရအသက္ကို ရရွိခဲ့ၾကသည္။ သိကၡာတင္ပြဲေတာ္ ၆၃ၾကိမ္ကို မစ္ရွင္အဖြဲ႔ေပါင္း ၁၆၃ခုျဖင့္ လုပ္ေဆာင္ႏိုင္ခဲ့သည္ျခင္းျဖင့္ ေဒသခံ ဓမၼဆရာ၊လက္ေထာက္ဓမၼဆရာ မ်ားစြာ ေမြးထုတ္ႏိုင္ခဲ့သည္။ အျခားအသင္းေတာ္မ်ားျဖစ္ေသာ မက္သဒစ္၊ ပရက္ဘာတာရီယန္၊ စသည့္ အသင္းေတာ္မ်ားႏွင့္ ပူးေပါင္းေဆာင္းရြက္ျခင္းမ်ား .. စသည့္ ဆရာၾကီးယုဒသန္၏ ဘ၀ခရီးစဥ္၊ သူ၏ ဘ၀ဒဏ္ခံႏိုင္ျခင္း၊ အတူးသျဖင့္ အင္း၀ေနျပည္ေတာ္တြင္ အက်ဥ္းခံရျခင္း ႏွင့္ ဧ၀ံေဂလိခရီးစဥ္ အားလံုးတို႔သည္ ခရစ္ေတာ္အားျဖင့္သာ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။
|ႏွစ္အလိုက္ ဆရာယုဒသန္၏ ဘ၀ျဖစ္စဥ္|
|၁၇၈၈||ၾသဂုတ္ ၉ ရက္ေန႔၊
အေမရိကန္ မက္ဆာခ်ဴးဆက္ျပည္နယ္၊ ေမာဒန္ ျမိဳ႔တြင္ ေမြးဖြားခဲ့သည္။
ဖခင္သည္ ျမိဳ႔ငယ္ေလးမွ ခရစ္ယန္သင္းအုပ္ဆရာတဦးျဖစ္သည္။
|၁၈၀၄||၁၆ႏွစ္||ဘေရာင္း တကၠသိုလ္မွ ပညာသင္ၾကားခဲ့သည္။|
|၁၈၀၇||၁၉ႏွစ္||ဘီေအဘြဲ႔ စက္တင္ဘာ ၂ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ရရွိခဲ့သည္။|
သဒၵါစာအုပ္တအုပ္ ႏွင့္ သခ်ၤာစာအုပ္တအုပ္ ျပဳစုျပီးစီးခဲ့သည္။ တကၠသိုလ္
သင္ၾကားေအာင္ျမင္ခဲ့ျပီး ဘုရားသခင္ကို သံသယျဖစ္ခဲ့သည္။ မိသားစုႏွင့္ ဆန္႔က်င္ျပီး နယူးေယာက္
ညည္းညူေသဆံုးသြားသူ လူငယ္တဦးသည္ တကၠသိုလ္တက္စဥ္က ပညာေတာ္သူ မိမိသူငယ္ခ်င္း
ဘာသာမဲ့တဦးျဖစ္သည္ကို အံ့ၾသဘြယ္ ၾကံဳခဲ့ရျပီး မိမိ မိသားစုထံ ျပန္လာခဲ့သည္။ က်မ္းစာသင္တန္း
Andover Seminary တြင္ဆက္လက္တက္ခဲ့သည္။
အသင္းေတာ္တြင္ ပါ၀င္ျပီး ဧ၀ံေဂလိခရီးစဥ္အတြက္ အသင္းေတာ္မ်ားႏွင့္
လုပ္ေဆာင္ႏိုင္ခဲ့သည္။ အသင္းေတာ္မ်ားမွာ လူငယ္မ်ားမစ္ရွင္လုပ္ငန္းအတြက္ ႏွစ္ႏွင္ခ်ီျပီးေဆြးေႏြး
တိုင္ပင္၊ ျပင္ဆင္မႈမ်ား လုပ္ေဆာင္ခဲ့သည္။
|၁၈၁၁||၂၃ႏွစ္||လန္ဒန္ျမိဳ႔သို႔ သေဘၤာစီးျပီး လန္ဒန္မစ္ရွင္အဖြဲ႔ႏွင့္ ေထာက္ပံမႈရေရးအတြက္ ညွိႏွိဳင္းသည္။|
လက္ထပ္သည္။ သိကၡာရဘုန္းေတာ္ၾကီးအျဖစ္ ဘိသိတ္ေပးခံရသည္။
သေဘၤာျဖင့္ အိႏၷိယျပည္၊ ကာလကတၱားျမိဳ႔ အေမရိကန္ႏွစ္ျခင္းအသင္းေတာ္သို႔ ေရာက္ရွိသည္။
|၁၉၁၃||၂၅ႏွစ္||ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳသို႔ ဇူလိုင္ ၁၃ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ေရာက္ရွိသည္။|
ကို ၆လခန္႔အျပင္းအထန္ ဟိႏၷဴလူမ်ိဳးတဦးထံမွသင္ယူသည္။ ၃ႏွစ္ခန္႔အၾကာ
ကို ျမန္မာပညာရွင္ တဦးကဲ့သို႔ တတ္ေျမာက္ခဲ့သည္။ ျမန္မာ - အဂၤလိပ္ အဘိဓာန္၊ ပါဠိ - ျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္ကို စတင္ျပဳစုရင္း
ျမန္မာက်မ္းစာအုပ္ ရွင္မႆဲခရစ္၀င္ ကို ေဟလသ (ဂရိ) ဘာသာမွ ဘာသာျပန္ဆို ျပီးစီးခဲ့သည္။
ေရြဓိဂံုဘုရားအနီး ဇရပ္တြင္ စတင္လုပ္ေဆာင္ခဲ့သည္။ ေမာင္ေနာသည္
ခံယူသည့္ ျမန္မာလူမ်ိဳးျဖစ္သည္။ (၁၉၁၉ ဇြန္ ၂၇)။ ထို႔ေနာက္ ေမာင္သာလွ၊ ေမာင္ေျဗ တို႔ႏွစ္ျခင္းခံခဲ့သည္။
ျမန္မာဘုရင္ ဘၾကီးေတာ္ မင္းတရားထံသြားေရာက္ျပီး ေရႊျမန္မာက်မ္းစာအုပ္လက္ေဆာင္ေပးအပ္ရင္း
သာသနာျပဳျခင္းမ်ာ ေႏွးေကြးသြားခဲ့သည္။ ႏွစ္ျခင္းခံသူ ၁၀ဦးခန္႔ျဖင့္
အသင္းေတာ္ငယ္ စတင္ခဲ့သည္။ ကာလကတၱားျမိဳ႔သို႔
ဇနီးသည္ ေဆးကုရင္း ျမန္မာျပည္မွထြက္ခြာခဲ့သည္။ ႏွစ္လအၾကာ ျပန္လာခဲသည္။ ျမန္မာပညာတတ္ ေမာင္ေရႊဂံုး ႏွင့္ ၾကြယ္၀ခ်မ္းသာေသာ
မိတ္ေဆြ၂ဦးတို႔ ႏွစ္ျခင္းခံခဲ့သည္။ ေမာင္ေရႊဂံုးသည္ ျမန္မာက်မ္းစာဘာသာျပန္လုပ္ငန္းကို အထူးကူညီသူျဖစ္သည္။
|၁၈၂၃||၃၅ႏွစ္||ဓမၼသစ္ ျမန္မာက်မ္းစာအုပ္ဘာသာျပန္ျခင္း ျပီးစီးခဲ့သည္။|
ပထမစစ္ပြဲျဖစ္ခဲ့ျပီး အဂၤလိပ္မ်ား အေအာက္ျမန္မာျပည္ကို သိမ္းယူခဲ့သည္။
ဆရာယုဒသန္ေမာင္ႏွံကို ျမန္မာဘုရင္ ဘၾကီးေတာ္မင္းတရားက
အင္း၀ေနျပည္ေတာ္သို႔ သူလွ်ိဳအျဖစ္ စြတ္စြဲကာ ဖမ္းဆီးေခၚေဆာင္သြားသည္။
ေမြးဖြားျပီး၊ ရန္ကုန္သို႔ျပန္လည္ေရာက္ရွိသည္။ ရန္ကုန္အသင္းေတာ္မွာ
ေမာ္လျမိဳင္ျမိဳ႔သို႔ ေျပာင္းေရႊ႔ေနထိုင္ရင္း အသင္းေတာ္ထူေထာင္သည္။ က်မ္းစာဘာသာျပန္ဆက္လုပ္သည္။
ပထမဇနီးသည္ ကြယ္လြန္သည္ (၁၈၂၆) ။ ဖခင္ျဖစ္သူ ကြယ္လြန္သည္ (၁၈၂၇)။
|၁၈၃၄||၄၆ႏွစ္||ဒုတိယဇနီးသည္ မစၥစ္ ေဗာ့ဒမန္ ႏွင့္ အိမ္ေထာင္ျပဳသည္။|
|၁၈၃၅||၄၇ႏွစ္||ဓမၼေဟာင္းက်မ္းစာ ျမန္မာဘာသာျပန္မႈ ျပီးဆံုးသည္။ (ဒီဇင္ဘာ ၂၉)။|
သေဘၤာျဖင့္ျပန္ရာလမ္းတြင္ ဇနီးသည္ ကြယ္လြန္သည္။ (၁၈၃၅)
ေဘာ့စတြန္ျမိဳ႔သို႔ ေအာက္တိုဘာ ၁၅ - ၁၈၃၅ တြင္ ေရာက္ရွိသည္။ အေမရိကန္အသင္းေတာ္မ်ားတြင္ အေမရိကန္စကားျဖင့္ ျမန္မာသာသနာျပဳ
ခရီးစဥ္ကို တင္ျပ၊ ေျပာၾကားခဲ့သည္။
|၁၉၄၅||၅၇ႏွစ္||မစၥအမၼလီခ်ဴးဗက္ ႏွင့္ အိမ္ေထာင္ျပဳသည္။ ၁၉၄၆ ဇူလိုင္၁၁တြင္ ျမန္မာျပည္သို႔ ျပန္လာၾကသည္။|
|၁၈၄၆||၅၈ႏွစ္||အဂၤလိပ္-ျမန္မာ အဘိဓါန္ ျပီးစီးခဲ့သည္။|
|၁၈၅၀||၆၂ႏွစ္||ေဆးကုသရန္ အေမရိကားသို႔ ျပန္ရာ သေဘၤာေပၚတြင္ ကြယ္လြန္သည္။ (၁၂ ဧျပီ ၁၈၅၀)|
Christian Heroism in Heathen Lands by Galen B. Royer မွတဆင့္ ျမန္မာမႈျပဳသည္။
Judson Memory Church in Yangon University, Myanmar
1. His Home. Nestled among the friendly trees of Malden, a beautiful suburb of Boston, Massachusetts, still stands the old wooden house in which Adoniram Judson, a Congregational minister, born at Woodbury, Connecticut, brought his bride, Abigail Brown, born at Tiverton, Rhode Island, after their marriage November 23, 1786. Their first child, born August 9, 1788, they called Adoniram. The family resided here until the son was four and one-half years old; then at Wenham till he was twelve; then at Braintree until he was sixteen, when they took up permanent residence at the historic town of Plymouth.
2. Success in School. At three young Judson was able to read. With boyish ambition he gathered other children together while from a chair he would conduct a service. His favorite hymn began, "Go preach my Gospel, saith the Lord." In grammar school he showed unusual taste for languages and was nicknamed Virgil, or "Old Virgil dug up." At twelve he sought after books to read, that older people refused him because of his youth, though his father fostered his desire for knowledge and never doubted that the son would some day be a great man. This unconcealed parental pride and ambition cost the child in later years a great struggle, for all worldly ambition had to be sacrificed for the one great purpose of his life. In 1804 the young man Judson as a sophomore entered Providence, afterwards named Brown, University. Three years later, when but nineteen, he won the honors of his class. His college days were marked by close application and great care in his life and conduct. The same year he finished college he opened a private academy in Plymouth, and taught nearly one year, during which time he published two school books,-- "Elements of English Grammar" and "Young Ladies' Arithmetic."
3. Conversion. While Adoniram was reared in a thoroughly Christian atmosphere during his college days, his life was stained by infidelity, which at that time swept over the land, and the precocious student became a Free Thinker before he completed his course. In this frame of mind, after his graduation, he made a tour thru the Northern States. He chanced to stop at a lonely inn and was assigned to a room next to a young man who died that night. Adoniram did not resent sleeping next to the dying man, but he wondered who was passing away and if he was, like himself, a Free Thinker, or was he a Christian. The next morning he learned of the young man's death and more: he who had passed away was an intimate friend and college classmate. Judson was stunned. He abandoned his further pleasure trip and returned home. He became an earnest seeker after salvation, much to the joy of his parents. By special favor, since he was neither a professor of religion nor a candidate for the ministry, he was admitted to Andover Seminary and on December 2, 1808, solemnly dedicated himself to Christ. About five months later he became a member of the Third Congregational Church at Plymouth.
4. Missionary Consecration. Conversion and consecration to the ministry were almost simultaneous. He became a Christian to become a minister and soon he added "to become a missionary." Dr. Buchanan's sermon, "The Star of the East," in which are related the missionary labors of Schwartz, in Burma, fired his soul. Judson, with four other devoted young men, formed a missionary society, and beneath a haystack near the college they consecrated themselves to foreign missions. Judson had much opposition to brook. He was offered a splendid position in Brown University. Dr. Griffith offered to make him his colleague in Plymouth church. When his mother heard this she said, "And you will be so near home." But he replied, "I shall never live in Boston. I have farther than that to go." His father's plans were frustrated; his mother and sister in tears pled with him not to become a foreign missionary.
5. Missionary Appointment. Judson and his associates made known their wishes to the teachers of the Seminary, and on June 27, 1810, to the General Association of the Congregationalists in Massachusetts. Thru this step the American Board of Foreign Missions, which has carried forward such a wonderful work in missions, was organized. Feeling their weakness in handling such a new and stupendous problem, this infant Board sent Judson to England to confer with the London Missionary Society; but joint efforts seemed impracticable. Upon his return he was appointed as a missionary in Asia, to locate in Burma or elsewhere as he deemed best.
6. Marriage. Judson's life by the cord of love was bound to Miss Ann Hasseltine, whose sublime heroism has made her one of the most remarkable women of her generation. She was born December 22, 1789; at sixteen confessed Christ; and in the face of much public sentiment against it, decided to become a foreign missionary. February 3, 1812, Judson took leave of his parents in Plymouth; on February 5 he was united in marriage to Ann Hasseltine; the next day he was ordained at Salem; and on February 19, with his bride, embarked on the brig, Caravan; bound for Calcutta.
7. Becomes a Baptist. It took four months for the voyage to India. During this time they studied their Bibles and decided to accept the tenets of the Baptists, because they had been led to believe that faith should precede baptism and baptism was immersion. It cost a great struggle, for in making the change he was casting aside all previous training and dropping the Board that had sent him. There was no Baptist Board. Surely his step was one of great faith and deep conviction. On September 6, 1812, Judson and his wife were baptized by Rev. Ward in Calcutta. When news reached America of this change, the Baptists were aroused and organized the American Baptist Missionary Union.
8. No Welcome in India. The East India Company compelled them to leave as they tried to settle at different places within their domain. Hither and thither they went; lived four months on the Isle of France, where they learned of the death of Mrs. Newell, the first American martyr of Foreign Missions; tried to land at Madras, in India, and finally found a resting place July 13, 1812, at Rangoon, Burma. They had much preferred the protection of the British flag, even though very unfriendly at that time, to the despotic, cruel care of the King of Burma.
9. Labors Abundant. In Rangoon the first ten years of missionary labors were given mainly to the mastering of the Burmese language, without grammar, dictionary or English-speaking teacher. Three years later to the day he completed a grammar for the Burmese language. May 20, 1817, he finished the translation of Matthew; he wrote tracts, concise, clear statements of Bible truth, and gave them out discriminatingly and prayerfully, and these located his first serious inquirer after truth. His keen logic, setting at naught the shrewdness of the natives, along with his beautiful Christian spirit, often brought applause from the hearers. After nearly six years in Burma, on April 4, 1819, Judson ventured to preach his first public discourse. June 27 he baptized Moung Hau, his first Burman convert. Many who had long been taught followed, and the mission was a happy body of believers.
10. Regions Beyond. But all was not favorable. The Viceroy of Rangoon harassed Judson until he decided to call on the Emperor at Ava. His appeal was of no avail, and he returned home greatly discouraged. He planned to move under English domain, but the little native church prevailed against his leaving. In 1822 Judson again called on the Emperor in Ava and this time was received favorably and asked to locate in the city. At this time Rangoon had a membership of eighteen natives, a chapel, printing press and schools, and two missionary couples from America to take care of the infant church. So answering the longing of his soul to enter the regions beyond, the Judsons began their home in Ava January 23, 1824.
11. In Prison. The Emperor gave Judson a plot of ground for a mission and assured him royal protection. Mrs. Judson soon had a fine class of native girls and the outlook was most promising. But war broke out between Burma and the English Government of India and the Judsons were looked upon as spies. On June 8, 1824, Judson was committed to the horrible prison of Oung-pen-la. It was forty by thirty, five feet high, with no ventilation save thru the cracks between the boards. "In this room were confined one hundred persons of both sexes and all nationalities, nearly all naked, and half famished. The prison was never washed or even swept. Putrid remains of animal and vegetable matter, together with nameless abominations, strewed the floor. In this place of torment Mr. Judson lay with five pairs of fetters on his legs and ankles, weighing about fourteen pounds, the marks of which he carried to his dying day. At nightfall, lest the prisoners should escape, a bamboo pole was placed between the legs and then drawn up by means of pulleys to a height which allowed their shoulders to rest on the ground while their feet depended from the iron rings of the fetters." With fine sensibilities, reared in tender surroundings, always active and pushing, no one can imagine what endurance he was called upon to exercise in the twenty-one months of prison life, much of the time in fetters.
12. His Heroic Wife. But Judson was not the only sufferer. His wife was without protection. Yet she brought food to the prison day after day and with bribes passed the officials and gave relief to some of the wretched prisoners. She gave birth to a child, and after twenty-one days carried it in her arms to show to its father in the prison. The child took small-pox; then the mother herself took the same loathsome disease, followed closely by spotted fever, which brought her close to death. After many entreaties she secured permission for her husband to come out of prison, and he, with fetters on and a guard following, carried their crying babe about the streets, begging nourishment from some Burman mother.
13. Deliverance. Though Judson was imprisoned because the Burman government thought him a spy, now it released him to translate and mediate in making terms of peace with the English government. He had kept scrupulously clear from all affairs of the government, but was compelled to take part. After six weeks' service he was cast into prison because of the advance of the English. He was soon released by Capt. Campbell, who took Mr. and Mrs. Judson to his own quarters and gave them every care.
14. Sunshine and Shadows. Peace being declared, the Judsons departed and arrived in Rangoon March 21, 1826. He refused an offer from the English government of $3,000 per year, and took up his mission work with undaunted courage. But his associates had fled, the native church was scattered and the mission property was destroyed. Famine, anarchy and wild beasts infested the place and Judson decided he would take the four native Christians and locate at Amherst, a place of greater safety. He was compelled to go to Ava to negotiate a commercial treaty, and while there two and one-half months his wife died. Upon his return he was met by the Christians in great lamentations; his heart was desolate. Yet he took up mission work again with ardor, resumed his translation of the Bible, talked with inquirers and preached every Sunday. On April 24, 1827, his little child, which was such a comfort to him, was taken from him, and bereft of wife and child he was alone in the world. Because Maulmain was rapidly eclipsing Amherst in population, and to get away from the scenes of sadness he had passed thru, Judson decided to move again.
15. In Maulmain. In moving to Maulmain the native church, including inquirers and nineteen scholars, followed. This formed a splendid nucleus, and work was begun in four centers. Soon he baptized his first convert and others rapidly followed. In spite of missionary duties he found time to begin translation of the Old Testament. Thru a native he resumed church work at Rangoon, which grew rapidly.
16. In Burma Again. In 1830 Judson again attempted to establish the faith within the gates of Burma proper. He located at Prome and preached to thousands. But the king, hearing of his work, gave orders for him to depart; reluctantly he withdrew to Rangoon, where he remained almost a year. About this time the Mission Board urged him to take furlough, but though on the field eighteen years without rest, he declined on the ground of the need of the field. He was overjoyed upon returning to Maulmain to learn that large numbers of Burmans and Karens and Talings had united with the church. Two million pages of tracts and Scriptures had been printed and a church in the jungle some distance had been organized. Taking a band of native Christians, whom he sent out two by two and every few days had return and report to him, he established systematic tours in the jungles.
17. Second Marriage. For eight years Judson had toiled alone. In Mrs. Sarah Hall Boardman, widow of one of his missionary associates, he found a kindred spirit for all his ideals, and on April 10, 1834, they were united in marriage. She was a widow for three years but had kept up the good work her husband, George D. Boardman, had so well carried on at Tavoy. She not only dealt with inquirers and directed the mission, but with her child carried by a native she climbed mountains, forded streams, and threaded forests and marshes in her tours thru jungles to carry the good news. Her schools were marked with such success that when government aid was granted for schools throughout the province, it was expressly stipulated by the English government that they should be conducted on the plan of Mrs. Boardman's at Tavoy.
18. The Burmese Bible. After twenty-one years of patient toil Judson completed the translation of the Bible into the Burmese on January 31, 1834. He then took seven years more to revise his first work and at last on October 24, 1840, the entire book was ready for the press. Competent judges pronounce the Judson Bible as the best translation that has appeared in India, and like the Luther Bible it will probably be the Bible for three centuries to come. It is said to be perfect in its literary cast.
19. Failing Health. When fifty years old, and after twenty-five years of incessant toil in Burma, Judson's health began to show signs of giving way. Difficulty in his lungs, attended with great pain and loss of speech, compelled him to take a sea voyage to Calcutta. He returned better. But at this time Mrs. Judson also was attacked by a disease that in the end closed her labors. They together went to Calcutta, then to the Isle of France and back to Maulmain. On this trip one of their children died. Mrs. Judson did not improve; all missionary work had to cease and they determined to go to America. Leaving the youngest three children behind with missionaries and taking the eldest three with them, they started. On September 1, 1845, while their boat was off St. Helena, Mrs. Judson passed away. Judson prepared the body for burial and that afternoon it was carried ashore and buried in the public burial grounds of that rocky island. That evening the boat lifted anchor for its journey.
20. Reception in America. Judson with his three children, arriving October 15, 1845, in Boston, was illy prepared to meet the wonderful greeting that was awaiting him. He was in delicate health; his pulmonary trouble kept him from speaking above a whisper and so he addressed audiences thru another repeating. At times he would disappoint audiences by not telling of his labors but declaring the wonderful story of redeeming love. He found it difficult to frame sentences in the English after so long a time thinking in a foreign tongue. Yet in spite of all this his journey from home to home and city to city was like a triumphal march; secular and religious papers reported his movements, so great was the respect paid to him.
While on this tour he engaged Miss Emily Chubbuck, who, under the name of Fanny Forester, had a wide literary reputation, to prepare suitable memoirs of Mrs. Sarah B. Judson, his deceased second wife. The result of this association was that on June 2, 1846, she became his wife. Many feared this marriage would spoil her literary career and his missionary service. But not so. And on July 11, 1846, Judson, with his wife, leaving his children in America to be educated, sailed for Burma with some new missionaries.
21. In Burma Again. During the eighteen months of absence one of his three children had passed away and but two lived to greet him. He still longed to enter Burma proper, but the country was now ruled by a king more intolerant than ever. His barbarities and cruelties far exceeded anything known in the land, and missionary operations, if any, had to be done in greatest secrecy. But Judson had been working on a dictionary and Rangoon offered facilities that Maulmain did not, and so he located in Rangoon again. During the day he worked on his dictionary; at night in his home he met native Christians who would risk their lives to meet with him. This stress, improper food, much sickness in his family and terrors of the king compelled him to retreat. He did so with almost a broken heart. He had hoped that the Board at home would authorize him to go even to Ava and face the fierce king; but "the timid and narrow policy of his brethren in America" forbade his doing this until two years later, and then it was too late.
22. His Death. Mrs. Judson's health gave him occasion for alarm. But instead of her passing beyond, he himself, after a most heroic fight even while on a sea voyage for his health, died at sea on April 12, 1850. That evening in greatest silence, broken only by the voice of the captain, his body was lowered on the larboard side into the Indian Ocean, even without a prayer.
23. A Review. Judson was permitted to finish the more difficult part of his Burmese dictionary, the English and Burmese; the Burmese and English was completed by his colaborer, Mr. Stevens. When evangelizing Burma first formed itself in his mind, he hoped to build up one congregation with a hundred converts before he died. At his death, however, Burman and Karen Christians who had publicly been baptized numbered over 7,000, beside the many during his thirty-five years of service who died happy in the faith. There were sixty-three congregations established under the direction of 163 missionaries, native pastors and assistants. This result becomes the more remarkable because it was accomplished in the midst of a people having a literature and religion to be supplanted. His consecration to missions gave occasion for the organization first of the Congregational Mission Board and then the American Baptist Missionary Union. But he had a very direct influence in quickening interest which led the Episcopalians and Methodists and Presbyterians to organize also. The story of his life and especially his suffering in Ava shall ever thrill the heart that is touched with suffering for Christ's sake, and his influence for world evangelization will cease only when the great task is completed.
|Chronology of Events in Judson's Life|
|1788||Born at Malden, Massachusetts, August 9.|
|1804||Entered Brown University one year in advance, August 17.|
|1807||Received degree of B.A., September 2.|
|1808||Completed English Grammar, and "Young Ladies' Arithmetic";
Entered Andover Theological Institution, October 12.
|1809||United with Third Congregational Church of Plymouth, May 28.|
|1810||Resolved with others to be a missionary, February.|
|1811||Sent to London to confer with London Missionary Society,
January 11 to August 7;
Appointed missionary to the East, September 19.
|1812||Married to Ann Hasseltine, February 5;
Ordained at Salem, February 6;
Sailed from Boston, August 8;
United with Baptist Church in Calcutta, September 6.
|1813||Arrived in Rangoon, July 13.|
|1819||Began public worship in Burmese language, April 4;
Baptized Moung Hau, first Burman convert, June 27.
|1823||Completed New Testament in Burmese, July 12.|
|1824||Arrived in Ava, January 23;
In fetters and prison as spy, June 8 to December 30, 1825.
|1825||Mary Elizabeth born, January 26.|
|1826||Arrived at Rangoon, March 21;
Arrived at Amherst. July 2;
Heard of Mrs. Judson's death (October 24) on November 24.
|1827||Heard of his father's death (November 25, 1826) July 11;
Arrived in Maulmain, November 14.
|1834||Married Mrs. Sarah Boardman, April 10.|
|1835||Completed Old Testament translation, December 29.|
|1845||Mrs. Judson died while on way to America, September 1;
Arrived in Boston. October 15.
|1846||Married Emily Chubbuck. June 2;
Sailed for Maulmain, July 11.
|1849||Completed English-Burmese dictionary, January 24.|
|1850||Died at sea April 12.|
|*Copied from Christian Heroism in Heathen Lands by Galen B. Royer. Originally published by Brethren Publishing House, 1915. With spelling edited by Stephen Ross.|
Adoniram Judson, missionary, was born at Malden, Massachusetts, August 9,1788. Of his youth there is but little known. His father was a Congregational minister, but instead of responding to the advantages of religious culture, young Judson grew to manhood entertaining skeptical views of Christianity. He was graduated from Brown University in 1807. The next year was spent in traveling and in school-teaching, and it was at this time that he published "Elements of English Grammar," and "Young Ladies' Arithmetic." His theological convictions becoming radically changed, he returned to Plymouth, where his father resided, and determined to seek admission to Andover Theological Seminary, which had been established about that time. He entered in 1808, not being a professor of religion, but desirous of knowing and learning the truth; and within a short time was happily converted. The reading of Buchanan's "Star in the East," and the influence of his associates, Mills, Richards, and Hall, decided him to become a foreign missionary.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which had been formed in 1810, was not in a position, financially, to assume the support of its pioneer missionaries, and Mr. Judson went to England to obtain the aid of the London Missionary Society. He sailed in January, 1811, and while on the voyage, the English ship was captured by a French privateer, and Mr. Judson was kept a prisoner at Bayonne for some time. Obtaining a passport, after his release, he visited London to find his plan impracticable, and on his return to America, the American board decided to assume the responsibility of sending Messrs. Judson, Hall, Newell, and Nott as its missionaries to Burmah. February 5, 1812, Judson was married to Ann Hasseltine of Bradford, Mass., and the same month they sailed for Calcutta, reaching there June 18th.
The change in Judson's belief concerning baptism forced him to sever his connection with the American Board, and made him the pioneer in a new denominational effort for the evangelization of Asia. Both Mr. and Mrs. Judson were baptized by immersion on reaching Calcutta. The strained relations between England and America, England and Burmah, made their stay in Calcutta inadvisable, and they sailed to Mauritius, where they remained four months, doing missionary work among the English sailors of the garrison, and afterward departed for Madras. On reaching their destination they learned of the order for the transportation of the American missionaries from Bombay to England, and fearing a like disposition they sailed at once for Rangoon, the principal port of the Burman empire, arriving there July, 1813. More than a year passed before Judson learned of the formation of the Baptist general convention, and that it had taken him under its care.
For three years he devoted himself to the study of the difficult Burmese language, and mastered it so thoroughly that he spoke with the freedom of a native; having practically abandoned the use of the English language, he both thought and spoke in Burmese, only allowing himself one English newspaper.
After six years of labor his first convert was baptized. During this period he published tracts, translated the gospel of Matthew and the Epistle to the Ephesians, conducted public preaching, and labored indefatigably for the furtherance of his work, despite the unfriendly attitude of the Burmese monarch.
In 1824 he removed to Ava where he preached for a short time until war between the English and the Burmese broke out, which placed the missionaries in great peril and resulted in extreme hardships and suffering. Mr. Judson was imprisoned for two years at Ava, confined in the "death-prison," and subjected to the most extreme cruelty, being bound with either three or five pairs of fetters. In these straits he was only saved from actual starvation by the unwearying attentions of his faithful wife; for the prisoners were not supplied with food by the jailers. Mrs. Judson besought the officials to release and assist the missionaries; with her babe (born at this trying time), and a faithful Bengalese servant, following her husband who had been driven with the others, under the fierce sun, from one prison to another. Through the influence of Sir Archibald Campbell, at the end of two years Mr. Judson was finally released, and with his wife left Ava for Amherst, the capital of the Provinces.
Mr. Judson at this time yielded to the solicitation of the British East India government and returned as interpreter with an embassy to Ava, to negotiate a new treaty between the English and the Burmese. A short time after his departure Mrs. Judson died, in the year 1826, having become so weakened by her hardships and sufferings that she was unable to resist the fever which attacked her. Her child died soon after, leaving the missionary indeed alone. The record of Mrs. Judson's life and sufferings is well known and has hardly a parallel in female missionary annals.
In 1829 Judson joined the Boardmans at Maulmain, which became the chief seat of the Baptist mission in Burmah. Here schools and a house of worship were built (the missionaries being generously aided by Sir Archibald Campbell), and a number of converts were added to the church.
About this time Judson thoroughly revised the New Testament in Burmese, and prepared twelve smaller works in the same tongue. In 1830 he visited central Burmah and gave away hundreds of tracts, besides making many converts, his boat at every landing being visited by natives anxious for books, and converts of years before greeted him. It was at this time also that he visited the Karen jungles, where his labors were so fruitful that it has been stated that the next twenty-five years yielded 20,000 Karen converts to Christianity. Before returning to Maulmain he spent a year at Rangoon, and devoted himself to the work of the translation of the Scriptures into Burmese, which he completed in 1834, when he at once began the revision of the Scriptures, and completed this great labor in 1840. While in Rangoon he shut himself in an upper room and surrendered himself entirely to the arduous work of translation, yet in spite of all his efforts at seclusion and the known displeasure of the king; nearly half his time was taken up with interviews. "During the great festival in honor of Gautama held near the close of the following winter there were nearly 6,000 applicants at his house for tracts." "Some," he says, "come two or three months' journey from the borders of Siam and China. 'Sir, we hear that there is an eternal hell; we are afraid of it; do give us a writing that will tell us how to escape it.' Others came from the frontiers of Cathay, 100 miles north of Ava. 'Sir, we have seen a writing that tells of an eternal God. Are you the man who gives away such writing? If so, pray give us one, for we want to know the truth before we die.'"
In 1834 he married Sarah Hall Boardman, a missionary who had labored in Burmah for years. Five years later he visited Bengal, compelled by lack of health to seek a change of air, and after a stay of a few months returned to Maulmain much benefited, and began subsequently the preparation of the Burmese Dictionary, with two complete vocabularies, English and Burmese, Burmese and English. This work was interrupted by the illness of Mrs. Judson, and in 1845 it seemed best that she should return to the United States. On the voyage she died and was buried at St. Helena, and Dr. Judson with his motherless children continued the journey homeward.
Arriving in America he warned the Board that they must not expect him to make public addresses, for, he said, "in order to become an acceptable and eloquent preacher in a foreign language, I deliberately abandoned my own. From long desuetude [disuse] I can scarcely put three sentences together in the English language," Judson was at this time in very poor health but he addressed large audiences through an interpreter. In 1846 he again sailed for Maulmain, having been married before his departure, to Emily Chubbuck of Utica, New York, who was noted not only for her devoted missionary spirit, but for her literary ability, having considerable reputation as a writer of both prose and verse.
After a brief time they removed to Rangoon where Dr. Judson continued his work on the dictionary which he was never to finish. Returning to Maulmain, in addition to his literary work he assumed the care of a Burman church. His health which had been failing for some time, was further undermined by a fever, and he took a sea-voyage to the Isle of France in hope of its being permanently restored. His wife was unable to accompany him on account of her own feeble health, and he departed accompanied only by an attendant.
The title of D.D. was given to Judson by Brown University in 1823. His literary works were a Burman dictionary, a Pali dictionary, a Burman grammar, and a complete Burman Bible. He was well known throughout India, being honored by English and native dignitaries alike, and the converts of his thirty-seven years of missionary labor deeply loved and revered him. He died April 12, 1850, three days out from Burmah, and was buried at sea.